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Crude Unit Start-ups: The Results of a High Liquid Level

Pressure-measurement techniques can avoid the dangers of rapidly changing flow rates and levels during start-up. Also, column internals directly above and below flash zones need to be designed for higher uplift forces.
Tags: CDU, VDU

Process Equipment Specification and Selection

Process design as well as equipment specifications and selection can cause unintended problems following unit revamps. Identification of the true constraints may result in significant capital savings.
Tags: FCCU

Centrifugal Compressor Operations

The wet gas compressor is used as an example in this article reviewing compressor performance, operating conditions and basic control philosophy - an aid to understanding the interactions influencing compressor performance and control.
Tags: FCCU

Vacuum Ejector Performance Break

Understanding vacuum ejector performance is the key to maintaining reliability and distillate yields. A low VGO yield may result from a breaking ejector system, but bypassing a fouled inter-condenser can restore lost yield.
Tags: CDU, VDU

Maximise VGO Yield

Fundamental operating principles of vacuum ejectors are discussed, including incidents leading to sudden increases in ejector suction pressure, known as breakthrough. Proper ejector component selection and design can significantly prevent breakthrough and increase VGO yield, while reducing resid production.
Tags: CDU, VDU

Crude Unit Preflash Drums and Columns

Preflash drums and preflash columns have significant effect on crude charge hydraulics. The reason for using preflash equipment are discussed, including general design considerations and problems that are created if they are designed incorrectly.
Tags: CDU, VDU

Crude Column Revamp Using Radial Temperature Profiles

Designers need to be aware of all the factors influencing packed bed performance such as feed zone mixing problems. Accurate assessment of temperature variations above and below fractionation zones can pinpoint efficiency problems.
Tags: CDU, VDU

Managing Vanadium from High Metals Crude Oils

Process and equipment design improvements, particularly with regard to crude unit and delayed coker distillation column performance, can reduce metals content. Optimization of components, including vacuum column stripping section and coker main fractionator wash zones, should be considered.
Tags: CDU, VDU

Designing a Crude Unit Heat Exchanger Network

Preheat train design for heavy Canadian crudes can be very challenging, requiring an approach not normally required with other crudes.
Tags: CDU, VDU

Vacuum Unit Performance

Inaccurate feed characterisation and process modelling errors are major contributors to poor performance in a vacuum unit as refiners switch to heavier crude types.
Tags: CDU, VDU